- novice: information is acquired through instruction; domain-specific facts, features, and actions are learnt. Rules are “context-free,” in the sense that their application ignores what else is happening in the environment.
- advanced beginner: ater substantial concrete experience with the domain. Situational elements—that is, elements that depend on the context—become meaningful and are used.
- competence: decision-making procedures are organised hierarchically. While this stage is characterized by an increased level of efficiency, planning is still to a considerable extent conscious and deliberate.
- proficiency: certain features will be perceived as salient while others will be ignored. Proficient individuals, while able to “intuitively organize and understand” the problem situations, still use analytical thinking to decide what to do next.
- expertise: both understanding of the task and deciding what to do is intuitive and fluid. In routine situations, “experts don’t solve problems and don’t make decisions; they do what normally works”
Wednesday, January 13, 2010
Dreyfus: Stages from novice to Expert
at 10:47 PM